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Term Definition


Environmental Protection Agency

EPACT 1992

Energy Policy Act, signed into law by President Bush in 1992. Mandated exclusive manufacture of 1.6 gpf toilets as well as low-flow aerators and showerheads.


Acronym for the Federal Communications Commission. The Federal agency in charge of regulating telecommunications of all sorts.

Fixed network AMR

More complete, more precise name for AMR that recognizes that there are older, more primitive forms of AMR such as ‘walk-by’ and ‘drive-by’.

Fixed rates

Part of a master metered or resident utility bill that is not affected by consumption.


The radio frequency used by the AMR system’s transmitters to connect to its Gateway, Receivers, and Repeaters.


In an AMR system, the central device that receives, transforms, and channels the data from the transmitters and onto the Internet for use by the system’s Control Center.


Acronym for General Packet Radio Service. A highly reliable (if slightly slower) protocol for Cellular data used in GSM mobile phone networks.


Hundred Cubic Feet. Typical unit of measure for water used by utilities.

Hot water hybrid

The practice of estimating a resident’s total water usage based on metered hot water usage.

Hot water ratio billing

The practice of estimating a resident’s total water usage based on metered hot water usage. Also, Hot water hybrid

Impact properties

Multi-family properties that are using a billing method where residents receive a regular bill determined by a system such as submetering, RUBS, or hot water hybrid, etc.

In-rent properties

Multi-family properties that do not separately bill residents for water and/or wastewater, rather these costs are recovered as part of the monthly rent. In properties where utilities are billed in rent, lower occupancy units effectively subsidize the water consumption of the units with more occupants.

Individual metering

The installation of meters for each individual dwelling unit as well as separate common are metering with the local water utility providing customer read, bill and collect services.


The International Protection Rating (IP) classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects, dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. The numeral 6 in IP-68 stands for protection against water from powerful jets from any direction; the numeral 8 stands for protection against immersion in over 1 meter (3 feet) of water. AMR transmitters used in manufactured housing, marinas, and RV parks must be IP-68 compliant.

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